Strength training offers many benefits to all types of children and adolescents. Strength training is a type of exercise and conditioning that focuses on the use of resistance to build strength, endurance, and size of the skeletal muscles1. When done properly, strength training can improve sports performance, protect against sports-related injuries, increase muscular strength and endurance, strengthen bones, promote healthy cholesterol and blood pressure, improve self-esteem, and help children maintain a healthy weight2.
There seems to be controversy surround the proper age a child can begin strength training and whether or not lifting weights is appropriate. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the National Strength and Condition Association (NSCA) all support strength training for kids. In fact, AAP stated that “appropriate strength-training programs have no apparent adverse effect on linear growth, growth plates, or the cardiovascular system2.”
According to Dr. Avery Faigenbaum, a renowned pediatric exercise scientist, there are many common myths that surround strength training. The first is that strength training will stunt the growth of children. However, research does not support this myth and does not show decreased stature in children that engage in resistance exercise regularly. Instead, this type of exercise has a positive effect on bone growth and development. The second myth is that strength training is unsafe for children. Actually, the risks of training are no greater than any other activity as long as there is qualified supervision and a safe training environment. The third myth is that children cannot increase strength because they do not have enough testosterone. However, testosterone is not needed to achieve strength gains, which is evidenced by strength gains in women and the elderly. The last myth is that strength training is only for young athletes. As discussed, strength training has a wide range of benefits and therefore is valuable to all boys and girls, whether involved in sports or not3.
“The American Academy of Pediatrics position on strength training supports the implementation of strength and resistance training programs, even for prepubescent children, that are monitored by well-trained adults and take into account the child’s maturation level. The only limitation the AAP suggests is to avoid repetitive maximal lifts (lifts that are one repetition maximum lifts or are within 2-3 repetitions of a one repetition maximum lift) until they have reached Tanner Stage 5 of developmental maturity. Tanner Stage 5 is the level in which visible secondary sex characteristics have been developed. Usually, in this stage adolescents will also have passed their period of maximal velocity of height growth. The AAP’s concern that children wait until this stage to perform maximal lifts is that the epiphyses, commonly called “growth plates”, are still very vulnerable to injury before this developmental stage. It is repeated injury to these growth plates that may hinder growth4.”
The NSCA offers these guidelines for strength-training programs:
- An instructor-to-child ratio of at least 1 to 10 is recommended.
- The instructor should have experience with kids and strength training.
- When teaching a new exercise, the trainer should have kids perform the exercise under his or her supervision in a hazard-free, well-lit, and adequately ventilated environment.
- Calisthenics and stretching exercises should be performed before and after strength training.
- Kids should begin with one set of 8 to 15 repetitions of six to eight exercises that focus on the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body.
- Kids should start with no load (resistance). When proper technique is mastered, a relatively light weight can be used with a high number of repetitions. Increase the weight as strength improves. Progression can also be achieved by increasing the number of sets (up to three) or types of exercises.
- Two to three training sessions per week on nonconsecutive days is sufficient.
It’s important to remember that strength training should be one part of a total fitness program. It can play a vital role in keeping your child healthy and fit, along with aerobic exercise such as biking and running, which keeps the heart and lungs in shape5.
It is important to note that children should have a strong basic exercise foundation and have efficient movement patterns in order to develop strength and flexibility. An ideal age to start strength training is 7-8 years old because balance and postural control skills have matured to adult levels. Proper form, technique, and safety are keys to success, and therefore explosive and rapid lifting is not recommended because it is difficult to maintain proper form and perform exercises safely, which may stress body tissues2.
As for as sports specific training, a child athlete must master the basics, such as strength, balance, power, coordination and visual perception in order to improve athleticism. . You cannot solely train specific skill, like throwing or swinging, for a specific sport. The key is to improve strength, power, flexibility and speed through efficient movement patterns. After a child become proficient in the basic skills, more specific skills can be introduced. It is important to remember that flexibility is the key to preventing injury and stretching should not be neglected6.
In conclusion, strength training is safe for children and adolescents and should be incorporated into their exercise routine to increase both physical and mental performance.